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Annatto (Bixa orellana L.)



Interactions

Annatto/Drug Interactions:
  • GeneralGeneral: Based on mouse study, Bixa orellana leaves reduced gastrointestinal motility (2). This may be significant when using oral agents as Bixa orellana may reduce absorption.
  • Aldose reductase inhibitorsAldose reductase inhibitors: In vitro, extracts of achiote (Bixa orellana) exhibited potent inhibitory activity towards lens aldose reductase (22).
  • AnalgesicsAnalgesics: Based on mouse study, a methanol extract of Bixa orellana leaves demonstrated analgesic properties (2).
  • AntibioticsAntibiotics: Extracts of several parts of the Bixa orellana plant demonstrated antibiotic properties, based on in vitro and animal study (5; 6; 7; 2; 8). In in vitro study, annatto extracts had an inhibitory effect on Bacillus cereus, Clostridium perfringens, Streptococcus thermophilus, Lactobacillus casei subsp. casei, Lactococcus lactis, Paenibacillus polymyxa, Listeria monocytogenes, and Enterococcus durans (8).
  • Anticoagulants and antiplateletsAnticoagulants and antiplatelets: Based on secondary sources, annatto may have anticoagulant effects.
  • Antidiabetic agentsAntidiabetic agents: The research in this area is conflicting, with oral administration of annatto positively and negatively affecting both glucose and insulin levels in several animal studies (17; 18; 19; 21). In vitro, hot water extracts of achiote (Bixa orellana) exhibited potent inhibitory activity towards lens aldose reductase (22).
  • AntidiarrhealsAntidiarrheals: Based on mouse study, Bixa orellana leaves demonstrated antidiarrheal activity (2). In clinical trial, patients with benign prostatic hyperplasia using Bixa orellana complained of constipation (36).
  • AntifungalsAntifungals: In vitro, Bixa orellana fruit extract exhibited antifungal activity against Cryptococcus neoformans (MIC=0.078mg/ml) (3).
  • AntihypertensivesAntihypertensives: Theoretically, annatto may potentiate the antihypertensive effects of medication used to treat hypertension.
  • Anti-inflammatory agentsAnti-inflammatory agents: In in vitro study, bixin isolated from Bixa orellana demonstrated COX-1 and COX-2 inhibitory properties (4).
  • Antineoplastic agentsAntineoplastic agents: Based on in vitro study, bixin demonstrated antineoplastic activity (4; 11). In vitro, increased frequency of micronucleated cells has been observed at a high concentration of annatto (10,670ppm) when it was administered simultaneously with cyclophosphamide (31).
  • AntiprotozoalsAntiprotozoals: In vitro, Bixa orellana methanol seed extract inhibited the growth of Leishmania amazonensis (3).
  • CNS depressantsCNS depressants: Based on mouse study, Bixa orellana leaves decreased locomotor activity (2).
  • Cytochrome P450-metabolized agentsCytochrome P450-metabolized agents: Based on in vitro and animal study, annatto may induce CYP1A1 and 2B isoenzymes; however, bixin, which makes up approximately 28% of annatto, may not be responsible for the CYP induction shown by annatto administration (32).
  • DiureticsDiuretics: Based on anecdote, some individuals may be highly sensitive to annatto and experience a diuretic effect at low doses, such as when eating foods in which annatto was used as a colorant or flavoring.
  • SedativesSedatives: Based on mouse study, Bixa orellana leaves had dose-dependent sedative effects (2).

Annatto/Herb/Supplement Interactions:
  • GeneralGeneral: Based on mouse study, Bixa orellana leaves reduced gastrointestinal motility (2). This may be significant when using oral herbs and supplements as Bixa orellana may reduce absorption.
  • Aldose reductase inhibitorsAldose reductase inhibitors: In vitro, extracts of achiote (Bixa orellana) exhibited potent inhibitory activity towards lens aldose reductase (22).
  • AnalgesicsAnalgesics: Based on mouse study, Bixa orellana leaves demonstrated analgesic properties (2).
  • AntibacterialsAntibacterials: Extracts of several parts of the Bixa orellana plant demonstrated antibacterial properties, based on in vitro and animal study (5; 6; 7; 2; 8). In in vitro study, annatto extracts had an inhibitory effect on Bacillus cereus, Clostridium perfringens, Streptococcus thermophilus, Lactobacillus casei subsp. casei, Lactococcus lactis, Paenibacillus polymyxa, Listeria monocytogenes, and Enterococcus durans (8).
  • Anticoagulants and antiplateletsAnticoagulants and antiplatelets: Based on secondary sources, annatto may have anticoagulant effects.
  • AntidiarrhealsAntidiarrheals: Based on mouse study, Bixa orellana leaves demonstrated antidiarrheal activity (2). In clinical trial, patients with benign prostatic hyperplasia using Bixa orellana complained of constipation (36).
  • AntifungalsAntifungals: In vitro, Bixa orellana fruit extract exhibited antifungal activity against Cryptococcus neoformans (MIC=0.078mg/ml) (3).
  • Anti-inflammatory herbsAnti-inflammatory herbs: Based on in vitro study, bixin isolated from Bixa orellana demonstrated COX-1 and COX-2 inhibitory properties (4).
  • AntineoplasticsAntineoplastics: Based on in vitro study, bixin may have antineoplastic activity (4; 11). In vitro, increased frequency of micronucleated cells has been observed at a high concentration of annatto (10,670ppm) when it was administered simultaneously with cyclophosphamide, so it should be used carefully, as high doses may increase the effect of mutagens (31).
  • AntioxidantsAntioxidants: Based on in vitro and animal study, annatto and Bixa orellana leaves demonstrated antioxidant activity (9; 10; 11; 2; 12).
  • AntiparasiticsAntiparasitics: In vitro, Bixa orellana methanol seed extract inhibited Leishmania amazonensis (3).
  • Cytochrome P450-metabolized herbs and supplementsCytochrome P450-metabolized herbs and supplements: Based on in vitro and animal study, annatto induced CYP1A1 and 2B isoenzymes; however, bixin, which is approximately 28% of annatto, may not be responsible for the CYP induction shown by annatto administration (32).
  • DiureticsDiuretics: Based on anecdote, some individuals may be highly sensitive to annatto, and a diuretic effect may occur at low doses, such as by eating foods in which annatto was used as a coloring or flavoring.
  • HypoglycemicsHypoglycemics: The research in this area is conflicting, with oral administration of annatto positively and negatively affecting both glucose and insulin levels in animal study (17; 18; 19; 21). In vitro, hot water extracts of achiote (Bixa orellana) exhibited potent inhibitory activity towards lens aldose reductase (22).
  • HypotensivesHypotensives: Theoretically, annatto may potentiate the antihypertensive effects of herbs and supplements used to treat hypertension.
  • SedativesSedatives: Based on mouse study, Bixa orellana leaves had dose-dependent sedative effects (2).

Annatto/Food Interactions:
  • Insufficient available evidence.

Annatto/Lab Interactions:
  • Blood culturesBlood cultures: Extracts of several parts of the Bixa orellana plant demonstrated antibacterial properties, based on in vitro and animal study (5; 6; 7; 2; 8). In in vitro study, annatto extracts had an inhibitory effect on Bacillus cereus, Clostridium perfringens, Streptococcus thermophilus, Lactobacillus casei subsp. casei, Lactococcus lactis, Paenibacillus polymyxa, Listeria monocytogenes, and Enterococcus durans (8).
  • Blood pressureBlood pressure: Theoretically, annatto may potentiate the antihypertensive effects of herbs and supplements used to treat hypertension.
  • ElectrolytesElectrolytes: Based on anecdote, annatto may have diuretic properties and theoretically may cause electrolyte imbalances.
  • Insulin levelsInsulin levels: The research in this area is conflicting, with oral administration of annatto positively and negatively affecting both glucose and insulin levels in animal study (17; 18; 19; 21).
  • Serum glucose levelsSerum glucose levels: The research in this area is conflicting, with oral administration of annatto positively and negatively affecting both glucose and insulin levels in animal study (17; 18; 21). In vitro, hot water extracts of achiote (Bixa orellana) exhibited potent inhibitory activity towards lens aldose reductase (22).
  • Serum levels of cytochrome P450-metabolized agentsSerum levels of cytochrome P450-metabolized agents: Based on in vitro and animal study, annatto induced CYP1A1 and 2B isoenzymes; however, bixin, which is approximately 28% of annatto, may not be responsible for the CYP induction shown by annatto administration (32).
  • Serum levels of oral drugsSerum levels of oral drugs: Based on mouse study, Bixa orellana leaves reduced gastrointestinal motility (2).

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The information in this monograph is intended for informational purposes only, and is meant to help users better understand health concerns. Information is based on review of scientific research data, historical practice patterns, and clinical experience. This information should not be interpreted as specific medical advice. Users should consult with a qualified healthcare provider for specific questions regarding therapies, diagnosis and/or health conditions, prior to making therapeutic decisions.

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