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Cardamom (Elettaria cardamomum)



Interactions

Cardamom/Drug Interactions:
  • GeneraGeneral: Cardamom has been found to enhance the permeation of various drugs for transdermal drug delivery (41; 42; 43; 44; 45).
  • AnalgesicsAnalgesics: In animal study, cardamom oil protected against the writhing (stretching syndrome) induced by p-benzoquinone (13).
  • AnestheticsAnesthetics: When exposed to frog sciatic nerve, cardamom volatile oil suppressed the withdrawal reflex, suggesting anesthetic effects (29).
  • AntibioticsAntibiotics: Cardamom has been used in folk medicine as a natural antimicrobial for elimination of foodborne bacteria (21). Cardamom has demonstrated antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus cereus, Listeria monocytogenes, Yersinia enterocolitica, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Lactobacillus plantarum, and Helicobacter pylori (46; 10; 47). It has also been found to exert sporicidal activity against Bacillus subtilis (48).
  • AnticholinergicsAnticholinergics: The antispasmodic activity of the oil extracted from commercial Elettaria cardamomum seeds was determined on a rabbit intestine preparation using acetylcholine as agonist; the results suggested that cardamom oil exerts its antispasmodic action through muscarinic receptor blockage (13).
  • Anticoagulants and antiplateletsAnticoagulants and antiplatelets: Cardamom has decreased malondialdehyde formation significantly in in vitro study and inhibited platelet aggregation (28).
  • AntifungalsAntifungals: In laboratory study, essential oil of cardamom exhibited antifungal effects against Aspergillus niger, Geotrichum, and Rhodotorula (46). In laboratory study, cardamom was found to have antifungal effects against Fusarium oxysporum (49).
  • Antihypertensive drugsAntihypertensive drugs: Based on animal study, intravenous administration of cardamom seed oil dose-dependently decreased arterial blood pressure and heart rate (29; 3).
  • Antineoplastic agentsAntineoplastic agents: In clinical study, cardamom was found to alleviate adverse effects of diamine platinum II (DDP) chemotherapy (15).
  • CNS depressantsCNS depressants: In animal study, cardamom caused prolongation of pentobarbital-induced sleeping time (3).
  • Cytochrome P450-metabolized agentsCytochrome P450-metabolized agents: According to animal study, cardamom oil significantly reduced cytochrome P450 level activity (27).
  • CyproheptadineCyproheptadine: Cyproheptadine antagonized the depressant effects of cardamom (29).
  • Diuretics, loopDiuretics, loop: In animal study, cardamom exhibited diuretic effects, increasing urine volume and enhancing the urinary excretion of sodium and potassium, similar to furosemide (3). Theoretically, concurrent use of cardamom with diuretics may have additive effects.
  • EstradiolEstradiol: In animal study, cardamom with 10% w/w concentration in propylene glycol enhanced the transdermal permeation of estradiol (43).
  • IndomethacinIndomethacin: In in vitro and in vivo study, pretreatment by cardamom oil in ethanol or water vehicles significantly enhanced transdermal delivery of indomethacin (45; 42). Three minor components in cardamom oil (alpha-pinene, 6.5%; beta-pinene, 4.8%; alpha-terpineol, 0.4%) had a synergistic effect with 1,8-cineole (59.3%) and d-limonene (29.0%) to enhance the permeation of indomethacin (45).
  • Muscarinic agentsMuscarinic agents: The antispasmodic activity of the oil extracted from commercial Elettaria cardamomum seeds was determined on a rabbit intestine preparation using acetylcholine as agonist; the results suggested that cardamom oil exerts its antispasmodic action through muscarinic receptor blockage (13).
  • PrednisolonePrednisolone: Terpineol and acetyl terpineol, active components in cardamon seed, have been identified in in vitro study as penetration enhancers for the diffusion of prednisolone through skin (44).

Cardamom/Herb/Supplement Interactions:
  • GeneralGeneral: Cardamom has been found to enhance the permeation of various agents (41; 42; 43; 44; 45; 43).
  • AnalgesicsAnalgesics: In animal study, cardamom oil protected against the writhing (stretching syndrome) induced by p-benzoquinone (13).
  • AnestheticsAnesthetics: When exposed to frog sciatic nerve, cardamom volatile oil suppressed the withdrawal reflex, suggesting anesthetic effects (29).
  • AntibacterialsAntibacterials: Cardamom has been used in folk medicine as a natural antimicrobial for elimination of foodborne bacteria (21). Cardamom has demonstrated antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus cereus, Listeria monocytogenes, Yersinia enterocolitica, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Lactobacillus plantarum, and Helicobacter pylori (46) (10; 47). It has also been found to exert sporicidal activity against Bacillus subtilis (48).
  • AnticholinergicsAnticholinergics: The antispasmodic activity of the oil extracted from commercial Elettaria cardamomum seeds was determined on a rabbit intestine preparation using acetylcholine as agonist; the results suggested that cardamom oil exerts its antispasmodic action through muscarinic receptor blockage (13).
  • Anticoagulants and antiplateletsAnticoagulants and antiplatelets: Cardamom decreased malondialdehyde formation significantly in in vitro study, and inhibited platelet aggregation (28).
  • AntifungalsAntifungals: In laboratory study, essential oil of cardamom exhibited antifungal effects against Aspergillus niger, Geotrichum, and Rhodotorula (46). In laboratory study, cardamom was found to have antifungal effects against Fusarium oxysporum (49).
  • AntihistaminesAntihistamines: Cyproheptadine antagonized the depressant effects of cardamom (29). Theoretically, herbs and supplements similar to cyproheptadine may produce similar effects.
  • AntineoplasticsAntineoplastics: In clinical study, cardamom was found to alleviate adverse effects of diamine platinum II (DDP) chemotherapy (15).
  • AntioxidantsAntioxidants: In animal and lab study, cardamom or its constituents have demonstrated antioxidant effects (50; 51; 52; 53; 54; 55; 56).
  • Cytochrome P450-metabolized agentsCytochrome P450-metabolized agents: According to animal study, cardamom oil significantly reduced cytochrome P450 level activity (27).
  • DiureticsDiuretics: In animal study, cardamom exhibited diuretic effects, increasing urine volume and enhancing the urinary excretion of sodium and potassium, similar to furosemide (3).
  • HypotensivesHypotensives: Based on animal study, intravenous administration of cardamom seed oil dose-dependently decreased arterial blood pressure and heart rate (29; 3).
  • Muscarinic antagonistsMuscarinic antagonists: The antispasmodic activity of the oil extracted from commercial Elettaria cardamomum seeds was determined on a rabbit intestine preparation using acetylcholine as agonist; the results suggested that cardamom oil exerts its antispasmodic action through muscarinic receptor blockage (13).
  • SedativesSedatives: In animal study, cardamom caused prolongation of pentobarbital-induced sleeping time (3).

Cardamom/Food Interactions:
  • Insufficient available evidence.

Cardamom/Lab Interactions:
  • Blood pressureBlood pressure: Based on animal study, intravenous administration of cardamom seed oil dose-dependently decreased arterial blood pressure and heart rate (29; 3).
  • Coagulation panelCoagulation panel: Cardamom decreased malondialdehyde formation significantly in in vitro study and inhibited platelet aggregation (28).
  • Heart rateHeart rate: Based on animal study, intravenous administration of cardamom seed oil dose-dependently decreased heart rate (29; 3).

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The information in this monograph is intended for informational purposes only, and is meant to help users better understand health concerns. Information is based on review of scientific research data, historical practice patterns, and clinical experience. This information should not be interpreted as specific medical advice. Users should consult with a qualified healthcare provider for specific questions regarding therapies, diagnosis and/or health conditions, prior to making therapeutic decisions.

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