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Table of Contents > Interactions & Depletions > Schisandra (Schisandra chinensis, Schisandra spenanthera) Print

Schisandra (Schisandra chinensis, Schisandra spenanthera)



Interactions

Schisandra/Drug Interactions:
  • AcetaminophenAcetaminophen: Based on in vitro study, Schisandra chinensis and its constituents may exhibit protective effects against acetaminophen (91; 37).
  • AnthelminticsAnthelmintics: Based on in vitro study, boiled water schisandra extracts may have anthelmintic effects (11).
  • AntibioticsAntibiotics: Based on in vitro study, ethanol extracts of Schisandra chinensis may induce antibacterial activity against Helicobacter pylori (4).
  • Anticoagulants and antiplateletsAnticoagulants and antiplatelets: Based on laboratory study, schisandra may have strong platelet-activating factor antagonist activity (83). Additionally, Schisandra chinensis increased the metabolism of warfarin in animal study (92).
  • Antidiabetic agentsAntidiabetic agents: Based on secondary sources, schisandra may lower blood sugar levels. In animal study, schisandra tincture has not shown antidiabetic effects (88). However, in animal partial hepatectomy study, a constituent of schisandra decreased plasma insulin (42). In animal study, both insulin and schisandrin B were hepatoprotective in xenobiotic-induced toxicity under diabetic conditions (93).
  • Antiinflammatory agentsAntiinflammatory agents: In in vitro and animal study, schisandra extract has been examined for anti-inflammatory effects (6). Gomisin A (TJN-101), a constituent of schisandra, inhibits arachidonic acid release and leukotriene biosynthesis in vitro; leukotriene biosynthesis is involved in the inflammatory response (7). However, schisandra has also displayed strong antagonism for platelet-activating factor in laboratory studies (83).
  • Antilipemic agentsAntilipemic agents: In animal study, wuweizisu C and gomisin A, constituents of schisandra, decreased serum triglyceride levels (53; 94).
  • Antineoplastic agentsAntineoplastic agents: Constituents of schisandra have demonstrated anticancer effects both in animal models and in cultured cancer cells (15; 12; 13; 95; 90; 96; 48; 97).
  • Antiretroviral agentsAntiretroviral agents: Based on in vitro study, certain constituents from Schisandra spp. may inhibit HIV-1 replication or may demonstrate other anti-HIV activities (57; 58; 59).
  • Antiulcer agentsAntiulcer agents: Based on animal and in vitro study, schisandra may have antiulcer effects (71; 4).
  • Antiviral agentsAntiviral agents: Based on in vitro study, constituents of schisandra may exhibit anti-HBsAg effects and antihepatitis E antigen (HBeAg) activity (55; 98; 54), and may inhibit HIV-1 replication or demonstrate other anti-HIV activities (57; 58; 59).
  • Cardiovascular agentsCardiovascular agents: Constituents of schisandra may have effects on isolated smooth muscle cells (32). Exercise-induced increased heart rate was reduced in race and polo horses given a standardized extract from schisandra fruit (99; 100). Schisandra and its constituents exhibited cardioprotective activity in various animal and organ models, mainly offering benefit against hypoxia and reperfusion injuries (101; 102; 103; 19; 104). Contractile force recovered faster in animals treated with schisandrin B in an ischemia-reperfusion model (104).
  • Cholinergic agonistsCholinergic agonists: In animal study, schisandra extracts had dose-dependent additive or antagonistic effects to nicotine and other cholinomimetic agents (5).
  • CNS depressantsCNS depressants: In animal study, schisandra or its constituents had neurological effects, including exerting inhibitory effects on the central nervous system (82).
  • CyclosporineCyclosporine: Two cases have been reported of an interaction between cyclosporine and dephenyl-dimethyl-dicarboxylate (PMC), a hepatotonic drug derived from fructus schisandrae elements, in kidney transplant patients with chronic hepatitis (105). Close monitoring of the cyclosporine levels are necessary during PMC therapy.
  • Cytochrome P450 metabolized agentsCytochrome P450 metabolized agents: Based on laboratory, in vitro, and animal studies, Schisandra chinensis or gomisin A may increase cytochrome P450 levels (106; 107; 94), specifically CYP3A and 2C isozymes (29; 108; 92). However, cytochrome P450 levels were not affected in some animal studies (109) and have been shown to be normalized in carbon tetrachloride-treated animals (110; 111). Animal study has not shown an effect on the plasma concentration profile of nifedipine (108). In animal and in vitro study, schisandra has been reported to activate various hepatic enzymes such as glutathione reductase (112; 21; 113; 106).
  • Doxorubicin (Adriamycin®)Doxorubicin (Adriamycin®): Schisandra has exhibited cardioprotective effects against adriamycin-induced rat heart mitochondrial toxicity in vitro (114; 25). The formation of malondialdehyde (a naturally occurring product of lipid peroxidation), as well as lysis, disintegration, and membrane rigidification, were reduced in mitochondria treated with adriamycin after treatment with various schisandra constituents.
  • EstrogensEstrogens: In animal study, constituents of schisandra led to a decrease in serum estradiol levels (112).
  • HalothaneHalothane: In halothane-treated liver microsomal suspension, metabolism of halothan to toxic components was inhibited (51).
  • ImmunosuppressantsImmunosuppressants: In vitro, gomisin C inhibited respiratory burst in neutrophils (115). In humans with hepatitis B, monocyte levels dropped, whereas levels of circulating white blood cells, neutrophils, and lymphocytes did not change (116). Wurenchun, an extract of Schisandra chinensis, appears to enhance cortisone-induced immunosuppressive effects (117).
  • MorphineMorphine: Based on secondary sources, schisandra may counteract respiratory paralysis caused by morphine overdose.
  • Neurologic agentsNeurologic agents: In animal study, schisandra or its constituents had neurological effects, including improving amnesia and exerting inhibitory effects on the central nervous system (66; 82). Schisandra extracts enhanced the passive-avoidance response in tacrine-treated animals (27). In tert-butylhydroperoxide-treated animals, schisandrin B reduced cerebral toxicity and lipid peroxidation (118). In vitro, a methanolic acid extract of dried schisandra fruit attenuated glutamate-induced neurotoxicity (67). In animal study, a combination herbal product containing Schisandra chinensis improved cognitive deficiency following sleep reduction; it also increased spontaneous activity, antagonized the inhabitation induced by diazepam (Valium®), and shortened the sleeping time caused by sodium pentobarbital (28).
  • ParasympathomimeticsParasympathomimetics: In animal study, schisandra extracts had dose-dependent additive or antagonistic effects to nicotine and other cholinomimetic agents (5).
  • PhenobarbitalPhenobarbital: Based on pharmacological study, Schisandra incarnata may prolong the sleeping time induced by phenobarbital (70).
  • Photosensitizing agentsPhotosensitizing agents: In vitro, schisandra acts as a photoprotector at low concentrations and as a photosensitizer at high concentrations (81).
  • ReserpineReserpine: In animal study, schisandra extracts potentiated the effect of reserpine (5)
  • SedativesSedatives: In animal study, schisandra or its constituents had neurological effects, including exerting inhibitory effects on the central nervous system (82). In animal study, a combination herbal product containing Schisandra chinensis antagonized the inhabitation induced by diazepam (Valium®), and shortened the sleeping time caused by sodium pentobarbital (28). However, based on pharmacological study, Schisandra incarnata may prolong the sleeping time induced by phenobarbital (70). In animal study, gomisin A shortened the hexobarbital-induced sleeping time (94).
  • SeldaneSeldane: Based on secondary sources, concomitant use of seldane and schisandra may not be advised due to increased side effects of seldane, such as cardiac arrhythmia.
  • TacrineTacrine: In tacrine-treated animals, pretreatment with schisandrin B enhanced the passive-avoidance response (27).
  • TacrolimusTacrolimus: Schisandra appears to increase the bioavailability and decrease the clearance of tacrolimus (119). Plasma levels of tacrolimus may be increased.
  • VasodilatorsVasodilators: In a rat thoracic aorta organ system stimulated to contract, schisandra fruit extract elicited a transient relaxing response (20). In human study, Schisandra chinensis and Bryonia alba extracts increased the concentration of nitric oxide in blood plasma and saliva (77). Constituents of schisandra may have effects on isolated smooth muscle cells (32).
  • WarfarinWarfarin: In animal study, Schisandra chinensis increased the metabolism of warfarin, thereby decreasing levels of the drug (92). This effect was likely due to induction of CYP450 2C9.

Schisandra/Herb/Supplement Interactions:
  • AdaptogensAdaptogens: Based animal study, standardized extracts from schisandra fruit may reduce fatigue and increase athletic performance (99; 100). In humans, homeopathic preparations of Schisandra chinensis have demonstrated potential adaptogenic effects (77).
  • AnthelminticsAnthelmintics: In vitro, boiled water schisandra extracts had wormicidal effects on Clonorchis sinensis (11).
  • AntibacterialsAntibacterials: Based on in vitro study, ethanol extracts of Schisandra chinensis may have antibacterial activity against Helicobacter pylori (4).
  • Anticoagulants and antiplateletsAnticoagulants and antiplatelets: Based on laboratory study, schisandra may have strong platelet-activating factor antagonist activity (83). Additionally, Schisandra chinensis increased the metabolism of warfarin in animal study (92)
  • Antiinflammatory herbs and supplementsAntiinflammatory herbs and supplements: In in vitro and animal study, schisandra extract has been examined for anti-inflammatory effects (6). Gomisin A (TJN-101), a constituent of schisandra, inhibits arachidonic acid release and leukotriene biosynthesis in vitro; leukotriene biosynthesis is involved in the inflammatory response (7). However, schisandra has also displayed strong antagonism for platelet-activating factor in laboratory studies (83).
  • AntilipemicsAntilipemics: In animal study, wuweizisu C and gomisin A, constituents of schisandra, decreased serum triglyceride levels (53; 94).
  • AntineoplasticsAntineoplastics: Constituents of schisandra have demonstrated anticancer effects both in animal models and in cultured cancer cells (15; 12; 13; 95; 90; 96; 48; 97).
  • AntioxidantsAntioxidants: In animal study, Schisandra chinensis inhibited formation of thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS), a measurement of oxidative activity (23). Antioxidant effects of schisandra have also been demonstrated in vitro (8; 2). In animal study, schisandrin B protected against hepatic oxidative damage (120; 121; 122; 123; 27; 40; 124; 125; 126; 9).
  • AntiparasiticsAntiparasitics: In vitro, boiled water schisandra extracts had wormicidal effects on Clonorchis sinensis (11).
  • Antiulcer herbs and supplementsAntiulcer herbs and supplements: Based on animal and in vitro study, schisandra may have antiulcer effects (71; 4).
  • AntiviralsAntivirals: Based on in vitro study, constituents of schisandra may exhibit anti-HBsAg effects and antihepatitis E antigen (HBeAg) activity (55; 98; 54), and may inhibit HIV-1 replication or demonstrate other anti-HIV activities (57; 58; 59).
  • Athletic performance enhancersAthletic performance enhancers: In animal study, a combination herbal product containing Schisandra chinensis prolonged swimming duration and increased tolerance against oxygen deficiency (28).
  • BupleurumBupleurum: Based on secondary sources, schisandra may aid in the treatment of irritable bowel syndrome when combined with wormwood, ginger, bupleurum, and danshen. However, based on other secondary sources, heartburn, acid indigestion, increased gastric activity, abdominal upset, decreased appetite, and stomach pain have been reported in some patients with use of schisandra.
  • Cardiovascular herbs and supplementsCardiovascular herbs and supplements: Constituents of schisandra may have effects on isolated smooth muscle cells (32). Exercise-induced increased heart rate was reduced in race and polo horses given a standardized extract from schisandra fruit (99; 100). Schisandra and its constituents exhibited cardioprotective activity in various animal and organ models, mainly offering benefit against hypoxia and reperfusion injuries (101; 102; 103; 19; 104). Contractile force recovered faster in animals treated with schisandrin B in an ischemia-reperfusion model (104).
  • Cholinergic herbs and supplementsCholinergic herbs and supplements: In mice, schisandra extracts had dose-dependent additive or antagonistic effects to nicotine and other cholinomometic agents (5).
  • CNS depressantsCNS depressants: In animal study, schisandra or its constituents had neurological effects, including exerting inhibitory effects on the central nervous system (82).
  • Cytochrome P450 metabolized herbs and supplementsCytochrome P450 metabolized herbs and supplements: Based on laboratory, in vitro, and animal studies, Schisandra chinensis or gomisin A may increase cytochrome P450 levels (106; 107; 94), specifically CYP3A and 2C isozymes (29; 108; 92). However, cytochrome P450 levels were not affected in some animal studies (109) and have been shown to be normalized in carbon tetrachloride-treated animals (110; 111). Animal study has not shown an effect on the plasma concentration profile of nifedipine (108). In animal and in vitro study, schisandra has been reported to activate various hepatic enzymes such as glutathione reductase (112; 21; 113; 106).
  • DanshenDanshen: Based on secondary sources, schisandra may aid in the treatment of irritable bowel syndrome when combined with wormwood, ginger, bupleurum, and danshen. However, based on other secondary sources, heartburn, acid indigestion, increased gastric activity, abdominal upset, decreased appetite, and stomach pain have been reported in some patients with use of schisandra.
  • GingerGinger: Based on secondary sources, schisandra may aid in the treatment of irritable bowel syndrome when combined with wormwood, ginger, bupleurum, and danshen. However, based on other secondary sources, heartburn, acid indigestion, increased gastric activity, abdominal upset, decreased appetite, and stomach pain have been reported in some patients with use of schisandra.
  • HypoglycemicsHypoglycemics: Based on secondary sources, shisandra may lower blood sugar levels. In some animal study, schisandra tincture has not shown antidiabetic effects (88). However, in animal partial hepatectomy study, a constituent of schisandra decreased plasma insulin (42). In animal study, both insulin and schisandrin B were hepatoprotective in xenobiotic-induced toxicity under diabetic conditions (93).
  • ImmunostimulantsImmunostimulants: In vitro, gomisin C inhibited respiratory burst in neutrophils (115). In humans with hepatitis B, monocyte levels dropped, whereas levels of circulating white blood cells, neutrophils, and lymphocytes did not change (116). Wurenchun, an extract of Schisandra chinensis, appears to enhance cortisone-induced immunosuppressive effects (117).
  • ImmunosuppressantsImmunosuppressants: In vitro, gomisin C inhibited respiratory burst in neutrophils (115). In humans with hepatitis B, monocyte levels dropped, whereas levels of circulating white blood cells, neutrophils, and lymphocytes did not change (116). Wurenchun, an extract of Schisandra chinensis, appears to enhance cortisone-induced immunosuppressive effects (117).
  • Neurologic herbs and supplementsNeurologic herbs and supplements: In animal study, schisandra or its constituents had neurological effects, including improving amnesia and exerting inhibitory effects on the central nervous system (66; 82). Shisandra extracts enhanced the passive-avoidance response in tacrine-treated animals (27). In tert-butylhydroperoxide-treated animals, schisandrin B reduced cerebral toxicity and lipid peroxidation (118). In vitro, a methanolic acid extract of dried schisandra fruit attenuated glutamate-induced neurotoxicity (67). In animal study, a combination herbal product containing Schisandra chinensis improved cognitive deficiency following sleep reduction; it also increased spontaneous activity, antagonized the inhabitation induced by diazepam (Valium®), and shortened the sleeping time caused by sodium pentobarbital (28).
  • PhotosensitizersPhotosensitizers: In vitro, schisandra acts as a photoprotector at low concentrations and as a photosensitizer at high concentrations (81).
  • PhytoestrogensPhytoestrogens: In animal study, constituents of schisandra led to a decrease in serum estradiol levels (112).
  • SedativesSedatives: In animal study, schisandra or its constituents had neurological effects, including exerting inhibitory effects on the central nervous system (82). A combination herbal product containing Schisandra chinensis antagonized the inhabitation induced by diazepam (Valium®) and shortened the sleeping time caused by sodium pentobarbital (28). However, based on pharmacological study, Schisandra incarnata may prolong the sleeping time induced by phenobarbital (70). Gomisin A shortened the hexobarbital-induced sleeping time in animal study (94).
  • Vasodilator herbs and supplementsVasodilator herbs and supplements: In a rat thoracic aorta organ system stimulated to contract, Schisandra fruit extract elicited a transient relaxing response (20). In human study, Schisandra chinensis and Bryonia alba extracts increased the concentration of nitric oxide in blood plasma and saliva (77). Constituents of schisandra may have effects on isolated smooth muscle cells (32).
  • WormwoodWormwood: Based on secondary sources, schisandra may aid in the treatment of irritable bowel syndrome when combined with wormwood, ginger, bupleurum, and danshen. However, based on other secondary sources, heartburn, acid indigestion, increased gastric activity, abdominal upset, decreased appetite, and stomach pain have been reported in some patients with use of schisandra.

Schisandra/Food Interactions:
  • GeneralGeneral: In theory, schisandra may assist in food digestion. Based on secondary sources, schisandra may aid in the treatment of irritable bowel syndrome when combined with wormwood, ginger, bupleurum, and danshen. However, based on other secondary sources, heartburn, acid indigestion, increased gastric activity, abdominal upset, decreased appetite, and stomach pain have been reported in some patients with use of schisandra.

Schisandra/Lab Interactions:
  • Antioxidant levelsAntioxidant levels: In animal study, Schisandra chinensis inhibited formation of thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS), a measurement of oxidative activity (23). Antioxidant effects of schisandra have also been demonstrated in vitro (8; 2). In animal study, schisandrin B protected against hepatic oxidative damage (120; 121; 122; 123; 27; 40; 124; 125; 126; 9).
  • Coagulation panelCoagulation panel: Based on laboratory study, schisandra may have strong platelet-activating factor antagonist activity (83).
  • CortisolCortisol: In human study, Schisandra chinensis and Bryonia alba extracts increased the concentration of cortisol in blood plasma and saliva (77).
  • Dehydroepiandrosterone sulfateDehydroepiandrosterone sulfate: In human study, a combination herbal product containing schisandra resulted in decreased dehydroepiandrosterone (-13.2%) and androstenedione (-8.6%) (127).
  • Drug levels (drugs metabolized by CYP450)Drug levels (drugs metabolized by CYP450): Based on animal and in vitro study, schisandra may induce cytochrome P450 3A4 and 2C9 and may reduce levels of drugs metabolized by these enzymes (29; 112; 92). There is also evidence from animal studies that schisandra may inhibit CYP3A4, which may affect drug levels (92).
  • EstrogenEstrogen: In animal study, constituents of schisandra led to a decrease in serum estradiol levels (112). Estrone sulfate decreased nonsignificantly.
  • GlucagonGlucagon: In animal partial hepatectomy study, a constituent of schisandra increased plasma glucagon (42).
  • GlucoseGlucose: In animal partial hepatectomy study, a constituent of schisandra decreased plasma insulin (42).
  • Heart rateHeart rate: Exercise-induced increased heart rate was reduced in race and polo horses given a standardized extract from schisandra fruit (99; 100). Contractile force recovered faster in animals treated with schisandrin B in an ischemia-reperfusion model (104).
  • Helicobacter pylori testHelicobacter pylori test: In vitro, ethanol extracts of Schisandra chinensis had antibacterial activity against Helicobacter pylori (4).
  • Hepatitis antibody testHepatitis antibody test: In vitro, lignan analogs of (+)-gomisin K exhibited anti-HBsAg effects and showed higher anti-HBeAg activity (55). The constituent lignans, kadsumarin A, and gomisins B, G, and K also resulted in anti-HBeAg and anti-HBsAg activity (98; 54).
  • HIV antibody testHIV antibody test: In vitro, oxygenated nortriterpenoids isolated from Schisandra micrantha resulted in HIV-1 replication inhibition (57). A constituent isolated from the stems of Schisandra sphaerandra showed activity in various anti-HIV reverse transcriptase and polymerase assays (58; 59).
  • InsulinInsulin: In animal partial hepatectomy study, a constituent of schisandra decreased plasma insulin (42).
  • Lecithin cholesterol acyltransferase profileLecithin cholesterol acyltransferase profile: In animal partial hepatectomy study, a constituent of schisandra elevated serum lecithin cholesterol acyltransferase (42).
  • Liver function tests and enzymes (LFTs)Liver function tests and enzymes (LFTs): Lignans from schisandra reduced levels of serum glutamic pyruvate transaminase/alanine aminotransferase (SGPT/ALT) in human and animal study (86; 128; 70; 129; 130). In animal liver toxicity study, schisandra constituents resulted in normalization of SGPT, serum glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase/aspartate aminotransferase (SGOT/AST), serum transaminase, NADPH cytochrome C reductase, aminopyrine N-demethylase, and cyctochrome P450 levels (110; 111; 53; 94; 131; 44; 21; 41; 132). In animal study, ethanol extracts of Schisandra chinensis resulted in modifications of various liver enzymes, including increases in 7-ethoxycoumarin O-deethylase (ECD) and aryl hydrocarbon hydroxylase (AHH) activities in males, cytochrome P450 levels in females, and microsomal epoxide hydratase (EH) (106).
  • Nitric oxideNitric oxide: In human study, Schisandra chinensis and Bryonia alba extracts increased the concentration of nitric oxide in blood plasma and saliva (77).
  • Prostate specific antigen (PSA)Prostate specific antigen (PSA): A combination herbal product containing extracts of Schisandra chinensis reduced lowered prostate-specific antigen secretion in prostate cancer cells in vitro (14). The effect of schisandra alone cannot be determined from this study.
  • Protein (serum)Protein (serum): In animal partial hepatectomy study, a constituent of schisandra elevated serum protein to control levels (42).
  • Stress testStress test: In animal study, a lignan-enriched extract of fructus schisandrae protected against physical exercise-induced muscle damage, perhaps due to increased hepatic antioxidant status (124). Also, in animal study, a combination herbal product containing Schisandra chinensis prolonged swimming duration and increased tolerance against oxygen deficiency (28).
  • TriglyceridesTriglycerides: In animal study, wuweizisu C and gomisin A, constituents of schisandra, decreased serum triglyceride levels (53; 94).
  • Viral loadViral load: Based on in vitro study, certain constituents from Schisandra spp. may inhibit HIV-1 replication or may demonstrate other anti-HIV activities (57; 58; 59).
  • White blood cell countWhite blood cell count: In humans with hepatitis B, monocyte levels dropped, whereas levels of circulating white blood cells, neutrophils, and lymphocytes did not change (116).

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The information in this monograph is intended for informational purposes only, and is meant to help users better understand health concerns. Information is based on review of scientific research data, historical practice patterns, and clinical experience. This information should not be interpreted as specific medical advice. Users should consult with a qualified healthcare provider for specific questions regarding therapies, diagnosis and/or health conditions, prior to making therapeutic decisions.

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