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Contraceptives



Depletions

Contraceptives/Nutrient Depletion:
  • DHEADHEA: Based on human evidence, Ortho Novum® 1/35 and Ovcon® 35 decreased serum concentration of dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS) (6235099). Based on human evidence, estrogen-containing oral contraceptives have also resulted in decreased DHEAS (15576394, 15970897).
  • FolateFolate: Based on human evidence, oral contraceptives (birth control pills) may impair folate metabolism producing depletion, but the effect is unlikely to cause anemia or megaloblastic changes (1091132). There have been cases of megaloblastic anemia in humans, however, with long term use of oral contraceptives (2540115, 112009). In addition, progesterone based therapy may decrease folate levels, as witnessed in animal study involving chick embryos (16804264).
  • MagnesiumMagnesium: Women using oral contraceptives were found to have lower serum magnesium levels (4376539).
  • MelatoninMelatonin: Medications that reduce levels of vitamin B6 in the body (such as oral contraceptives, hormone replacement therapy, loop diuretics, hydralazine, theophylline) may also deplete melatonin levels (8872867, 272672).
  • RiboflavinRiboflavin: Evidence from human and animal study suggests that women taking high-dose oral contraceptives developed diminished riboflavin nutritional status, but when investigators controlled for dietary riboflavin intake, no impact was found (623047, 10133, 4075796, 484523, 914458, 3087915, 7361702, 7064900, 7400487, 528155).
  • SeleniumSelenium: Based on human evidence, selenium levels may be decreased in patients taking oral contraceptives (19501214).
  • ThiaminThiamin: Oral contraceptives may decrease levels of some B vitamins in the body. Some human studies suggest slight decreases in thiamine levels with oral contraceptive use, while other research has found no effects (3989416, 7400487).
  • Vitamin AVitamin A: Based on human study and clinical review, estrogens have been found to stimulate the production of retinol binding protein and increasing the mobilization of vitamin A from liver storage (1130320, 6481708).
  • Vitamin B5 (pantothenic acid)Vitamin B5 (pantothenic acid): According to secondary sources, drugs containing estrogen and progestin may increase the body's daily requirement of pantothenic acid.
  • Vitamin B6/pyridoxineVitamin B6/pyridoxine: There is conflicting evidence as to whether oral contraceptives have been associated with vitamin B6 depletion and clinical depression in human studies (9179457, 4123835).
  • Vitamin B12Vitamin B12: The data regarding the effects of oral contraceptives on vitamin B12 serum levels are conflicting. Some human studies have found reduced serum levels in oral contraceptive users, but others have found no effect despite use of oral contraceptives for up to six months (12593896, 3976378, 474643, 1764944).
  • Vitamin C/ascorbic acidVitamin C/ascorbic acid: Based on human evidence, oral estrogens may modulate vitamin C levels (15587897).
  • ZincZinc: Based on human evidence, birth control pills may decrease zinc absorption (19501214).

Copyright © 2011 Natural Standard (www.naturalstandard.com)


The information in this monograph is intended for informational purposes only, and is meant to help users better understand health concerns. Information is based on review of scientific research data, historical practice patterns, and clinical experience. This information should not be interpreted as specific medical advice. Users should consult with a qualified healthcare provider for specific questions regarding therapies, diagnosis and/or health conditions, prior to making therapeutic decisions.

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